Migraine – Symptoms and causes

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A migraine is an intense headache that often comes with nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light. It can last for hours or days. Migraines can be extremely debilitating, preventing people from being able to work or function normally. Some people experience aura symptoms before a migraine, such as flashes of light or blind spots.

Migraine Symptoms

Migraines are a type of headache that can cause a throbbing sensation and can be very debilitating. They are different in everyone, and many people experience them in stages. The stages of a migraine may include the prodrome, aura, attack, and postdrome. The prodrome is the phase before the migraine begins, when people may experience symptoms such as fatigue, mood changes, and neck stiffness. The aura is the phase when people may see flashes of light or have other visual disturbances. The attack is the actual migraine, which can last for hours or even days. The postdrome is the phase after the migraine, when people may feel tired or drained.


During the prodrome stage of migraine, patients may experience a range of symptoms that precede the onset of the migraine headache. These may include:

  • Mood changes
  • Being sensitive to light, sound, or smell
  • Food cravings or lack of appetite
  • Bloating
  • Constipation or Diarrhea
  • Neck stiffness
  • Increased thirst
  • Fatigue

The prodrome stage can last for hours or even days and may be a warning sign that a migraine is about to occur. For some patients, the prodrome stage is the only warning they get before the migraine headache begins.


For some people who experience migraines, an aura might occur before or during the headache. Auras are reversible symptoms of the nervous system that can include visual disturbances and other disturbances such as changes in smell, touch, or hearing. Each symptom usually begins gradually, builds up over several minutes, and can last up to 60 minutes. While an aura can be a warning sign that a migraine is coming, it is not always indicative of a migraine, and not everyone who experiences migraines will have an aura.

Examples of migraine auras include:

  • Visual phenomena
  • Vision loss
  • Pins and needles sensations in an arm or leg
  • Weakness or numbness
  • Difficulty speaking


The attack stage of migraine is the phase when the person experiences the most severe symptoms. Intense headaches, nausea characterize it and sometimes vomiting. The person may also experience sensitivity to light and sound. This stage can last for hours or even days.


Postdrome is a stage of Migraine that can last up to a day after a headache. This is the final stage of a Migraine and is characterized by a feeling of exhaustion and general unwellness. Postdrome can be a very debilitating stage of migraines and make it difficult to carry out everyday activities.

Symptoms include:

  • Feeling tired, wiped out, or crankyFeeling unusually refreshed or happy
  • Muscle pain or weakness
  • Food cravings or lack of appetite

Migraine Triggers

Some common migraine triggers include:

  • Hormone changes
  • Stress
  • Foods
  • Skipping meals 
  • Caffeine
  • Changing in weather
  • Senses
  • Medications
  • Physical activity
  • Tobacco
  • Changes to your sleep

Hormone Changes

Hormonal changes often trigger migraine headaches. This is especially true for women, who are more likely to experience migraines during times of hormonal fluctuation, such as during puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, and menopause. Hormonal changes can also trigger migraines in men, but this is less common.

There are a few theories as to why hormonal changes trigger migraines. One theory is that changes in estrogen levels can affect the neurotransmitters in the brain, leading to migraines. Another theory is that changes in estrogen can cause changes in the blood vessels in the brain, which can also lead to migraines.

If you are a woman who experiences migraines, it is essential to track your migraines in relation to your menstrual cycle. This can help you to identify patterns and triggers. If you find that hormonal changes are triggering your migraines, there are a few things that you can do to try to prevent them:

  1. You can try to avoid sudden changes in hormone levels by using birth control pills with a constant dose of hormones or by using an intrauterine device (IUD).
  2. You can try to manage stress, which can also trigger migraines.
  3. You can talk to your doctor about taking medication to prevent migraines, such as triptans or birth control pills.


Migraine headaches are often brought on by stress. Stress can be caused by many different things, such as work, school, family, or personal problems. When you’re under stress, your body releases hormones that can trigger a migraine.


There are many factors that can trigger a migraine, and one of them is changes in food. If you are someone who suffers from migraines, you may want to pay attention to any changes in your diet that seem to coincide with your migraine attacks. Perhaps you have noticed that you tend to get migraines after eating certain foods or skipping meals. Either way, changes in your diet can trigger migraines, so it is essential to be aware of this.

If you think that changes in your diet are triggering your migraines, you can do a few things:

  1. Keep a food diary and note down any migraines and what you ate in the 24 hours before the migraine began. This can help you to identify any patterns.
  2. Try to eat regular meals and snacks throughout the day to stabilize your blood sugar.
  3. If you do identify certain trigger foods, try to avoid them.

Skipping meals 

A new study has found that skipping meals can trigger migraines in some people. The study, published in the journal Neurology, found that people who skipped breakfast or lunch were more likely to experience migraines than those who ate three meals a day.

The study looked at data from over 1,000 people who experience migraines. The participants were asked about their diet and how often they experienced migraines. The results showed that people who skipped meals were more likely to experience migraines than those who ate three meals daily.

The study did not find a direct link between skipping meals and migraines, but the researchers say that the results suggest that skipping meals may trigger migraines in some people. If you experience migraines, you may want to consider eating three meals a day to help prevent them.


Caffeine is a known trigger for migraines, and many people who suffer from migraines avoid caffeine altogether. However, some people find that a small amount of caffeine can help relieve their migraine symptoms. If you suffer from migraines, it’s important to experiment to see what works for you. Some people find that a cup of coffee or tea in the morning helps prevent migraines, while others find that even a tiny amount of caffeine can trigger a migraine.

Changing in weather

Migraine sufferers know all too well that weather changes can trigger a migraine. While the exact mechanisms are not fully understood, there are a few theories about why this may be. One theory is that changes in barometric pressure can trigger migraines. Another theory is that changes in temperature or humidity can affect the body’s fluid levels, which can, in turn, trigger a migraine. Whatever the exact cause, weather changes are one of the most common triggers for migraines. If you suffer from migraines, you must be aware of this trigger and take steps to protect yourself from weather-related migraines.


Senses are often triggers for migraines. For many people, bright lights, loud noises, and strong smells can lead to migraines. Some people are also sensitive to changes in weather, such as barometric pressure, humidity, and temperature. While the exact cause of migraines is still unknown, they are thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors.


Migraine is a debilitating condition that can cause severe headaches and other symptoms. Many people suffering from migraines find that certain medications can trigger an attack. Medicines that are known to trigger migraine include beta-blockers, tricyclic antidepressants, and calcium channel blockers. If you are taking any of these medications and experience migraine symptoms, it is essential to speak to your doctor.

Physical activity

Migraine sufferers know all too well that physical activity can trigger a migraine. Studies have shown that up to 70% of migraine sufferers are sensitive to physical activity. While the exact mechanism is unknown, it is thought that increased heart rate, blood pressure and blood flow may cause the release of substances that trigger migraines.

For many people with migraines, avoiding physical activity is not an option. However, some things can be done to help minimize the risk of triggering a migraine:

  1. It is essential to warm up slowly and gradually increase the intensity of the activity.
  2. Stay well hydrated before and during exercise.
  3. Listen to your body and stop if you feel a migraine.


Migraine is a debilitating condition that can cause severe headaches, nausea and vomiting. For some people, specific triggers can bring on a migraine attack. One of the most common triggers is tobacco. Tobacco can be found in cigarettes, cigars, pipes and even some chewing tobacco. When you smoke or chew tobacco, the nicotine is absorbed into your bloodstream and can trigger a migraine. Even secondhand smoke can be a trigger for some people. If you suffer from migraines, it’s important to avoid tobacco and any other triggers that you may have. While it may be challenging to give up tobacco, it’s worth it to avoid the pain and suffering that migraines can cause.

Changes to your sleep

If you’re someone who suffers from migraines, you know that they can be triggered by various things – from food and drink to stress and sleep. If you’re hoping to reduce the number of migraines you get, it’s essential to be aware of all your potential triggers and adjust your lifestyle accordingly. One trigger that you may not have considered is your sleep patterns. If you’re not getting enough sleep, or if your sleep is disrupted, it can lead to migraines. To avoid this, try to get seven to eight hours of sleep every night and stick to a regular sleep schedule. If you have trouble sleeping, talk to your doctor about ways to improve your sleep habits.

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